Effects of Aging Temperature and Time on Synthesis of Hydroxyapatite

Effects of Aging Temperature and Time on Synthesis of Hydroxyapatite

Biomaterials have numerous applications in joint replacements, bone plates, ligaments, drug delivery, scaffolds for tissue engineering etc. Wet chemical method is a versatile technique and was used in the present investigation to synthesize Hydroxyapatite from eggshells. Effects of aging time, aging temperature and sintering temperature on structural and morphological properties of synthesized product was analyzed comprehensively. Aging time and temperatures were observed to have profound influence on properties of Hydroxyapatite.

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Effects of Aging Time and Temperature on Coralline Hydroxyapatite

Effects of Aging Time and Temperature on Coralline Hydroxyapatite

Hydroxyapatite (HAP) is a major mineral constituent of vertebrate bones and teeth. Corals may be used for substitution purposes in biomaterials having many biomedical applications. Corals (sea-shells) of class “Gonipora” having characteristics of natural micro-porous structure were used as a raw material in present investigation. A simple method of converting the corals into HAP powder using wet precipitation method has been developed. Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) were employed to characterize the synthetic nano powders. Aging effect was studied for different aging times at different aging temperatures. Synthetic powders were sintered at different temperatures as revealed by TGA technique. At an aging time of 25?C and aging time of 24 hours, percentage of HAP was found to be maximum and hence concluded to be the optimum aging time and aging temperature for HAP synthesis using corals as raw ingredient.

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Biocompatibility study of Hydroxyapatite

Biocompatibility study of Hydroxyapatite

Among the bioactive ceramics Hydroxyapatite (HA) is an inorganic, insoluble calcium phosphate salt and owing to its biocompatibility and osteoconductive properties it is a desirable implant material. Hydroxyapatite (HA) is one of the most stable crystal structures of the calcium phosphates. Hydroxyapatite (HA) is the principal bioactive The aim of this work is to synthesize phase pure hydroxyapatite by the wet precipitation method which is the simplest method for the synthesis of hydroxyl apatite. To evaluate the phase purity of hydroxyapatite and to know the effect of stirring speed and time on the phase purity. To study the morphology of HA particles and its size variation with stirring time. To determine how stirring time effect of the crystallite size and crystallinity degree. To evaluate the phase purity of hydroxyapatite and to know the effect of refluxing time on the phase purity. To study the morphology of HA particles and its size variation with refluxing time. To examine how refluxing time effect of the crystallite size and crystallinity degree. In vitro assessment of bioactivity of synthesized hydroxyapatite powder in simulated body fluid.

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THERMOMETRIC CALIBRATION OF THE HEATING EFFECTS BY 27.12 MHz

THERMOMETRIC CALIBRATION OF THE HEATING EFFECTS BY 27.12 MHz

This project will focus on the thermometric calibration of the heating effects by the 27.12 MHz Mettler Diathermy system on non-hardening clay with digital thermometer of plastic probe for use in Hyperthermia system for the treatment of cancer. The non-hardening clay is chosen so that the electrical properties are identical to the biological human tissue. The experimental study on the Mettler diathermy system will include the adjustments of the head of the applicator and different sizes of clay medium. Our goal would be to achieve the temperature of the treatment within the desired time and to improve the conditions of the experiment and to be more efficient and accurate with the temperature measurements with respect to time.

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Aging Degradation and Countermeasures

Aging Degradation and Countermeasures

This book summarizes the outcome of investigations on the effects of aging mechanisms induced parameter shifts and performance degradation in analog and mixed signal integrated circuits. Degradation induced due to aging mechanisms like bias temperature instability, conducting and non-conducting hot carrier injection in NMOS and PMOS devices leads to increased challenges in design of reliable circuits in deep-submicrometer CMOS technologies. The lifetime degradation induces threshold voltage and drain current shifts that can result into mismatch in matched transistor pairs which is especially important for analog and mixed signal circuit's accuracy. The investigations are done based on analytical evaluation, aging simulation and measurements using sample circuits implemented in state-of-the-art 32nm high-k metal gate CMOS technology. Calibration and correction techniques suitable for overcoming time varying aging induced circuit performance degradation are proposed and investigated. This book is structured to guide the reader from important aging mechanisms, over to aging degradation in analog and mixed signal building blocks and countermeasures to overcome these effects.

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Oxide Magnetostrictive Materials Based on Cobalt Ferrite

Oxide Magnetostrictive Materials Based on Cobalt Ferrite

Magnetic materials play a crucial role in presentdays technological advance. Smart materials such asmagnetostrictive materials exhibit both sensing andactuation behavior. Magnetostrictive sensors havevarious applications in Sonar, Aerospace design,Marine industries and several other applications. Itis well known that microstrcture of materialsdrastically affects the magnetic properties. Thepresent work is divided in two parts. Part I mainlydeals with understanding the effects ofmicrostructural modification as well assubstitutional effects by other elements such as Mnin cobalt ferrite. The results of variousprocessing parameters affecting the magnetostrictionhave been discussed. The materials were obtained bytechniques such as ceramic method and otherestablished low temperature methods of synthesis suchas combustion synthesis to get bulk and nano powdersrespectively. Part II of the work is about the effect of Fesubstitution on the magnetic and structuralproperties of lanthanum manganites.

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Educational Interventions And Ageism Among Counseling Students

Educational Interventions And Ageism Among Counseling Students

Graduate counseling students need to acquire aging specific knowledge to make them more effective when working with the increasingly growing number of older individuals. Educational interventions of both long and short duration have been found to increase aging knowledge, reduce common misconceptions about older adults, while also helping to create more positive attitudes toward older adults. The primary purpose of this study was to test the effects of a very brief educational intervention on the overall aging knowledge of graduate counseling students. The secondary purpose of this study was to test the effects of an educational intervention on overall aging and mental health knowledge, negative aging bias and the ability to use factually based knowledge to process exploratory vignettes about situations faced by aging adults. The most exciting finding of this study was that it proved that a lot can be done in regards to conveying aging related knowledge to graduate counseling students in a very short period of time. The fact that all measures were done three weeks after the educational intervention also showed that the information conveyed was able to be retained.

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Effects of 4-Nonylphenol on ?African Catfish Clarias ?gariepinus

Effects of 4-Nonylphenol on ?African Catfish Clarias ?gariepinus

This work revealed the destructive effects of sublethel doses of 4-nonylphenol on the heamatological parameters, biochemical variables and hormonal activity of the adults African Catfish, Clarias gariepinus. Also, histopathological and ultrastructure studies of some organs using TEM confirmed these effects. These destructive effects were studied on the early developmental stages in terms of incubation time, fertilization rate, hatching rate, mortality rate, morphological malformations and histopathological changes using SEM. The genotoxicity of this pollutant was studied using SDS-PAGE, RAPD-PCR, apoptosis detection and micronucleus test.

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The Influence of Fire and Elevated Temperature on NEC, HSC and UHSC

The Influence of Fire and Elevated Temperature on NEC, HSC and UHSC

This research aims to introduce a briefly review and an evaluation to the performance of normal strength concrete "NSC", high strength concrete "HSC" and ultra high strength concrete "UHSC" under the effects of fire and elevated temperature based on previous studies. Also, a comparison between the behaviors of each type when exposed to elevated temperature effects is performed. The importance of this research is based on the need to know the available data addressing the behavior of NSC, HSC and UHSC under the effect of elevated temperatures. This research provides data concerning the influence of fire and high temperatures on the main properties of NSC, HSC and UHSC.

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