Assessment of Surface Water Quality of Central Indus (River Indus)

Assessment of Surface Water Quality of Central Indus (River Indus)

This study aspires to analyze and understand the level of pollutant’s concentration in the surface water of the central Indus (Wetland complex). It aims at investigating the major sources of water pollutants affecting the surface water quality of central Indus. Overall 40 surface water samples had been collected from the Central Indus (Wetland Complex) over a time span of two months ranging from February 2009 to March 2009 and water quality parameters/ Indicators like temperature, pH, TDS, EC, Salinity, DO, Calcium (Ca+2), Magnesium (Mg+2), T.H, Alkalinity (Alk), Chloride (Cl), Phosphate (PO4+3), Sulphate SO4 ,+2 Nitrates (NO3-), and trace metals including Zn2+ Cd+2, Pb+2 & Cu+2 were determined. In addition, biological parameters like total coli-form and fecal coli-form were also determined. The level of majority of water quality parameters was found higher than specified international quality standards. It was also observed that this level of pollutant’s concentration was higher than echelon of most of rivers of the world Such as River Ogun, Ganga River, Calabar River, Vatinsky Egan River and River Indus itself.

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Indus River Unleashed

Indus River Unleashed

Increasing impacts of Monsoons in South Asia is effecting hundreds of lives every year. Due to the fertile soils majority of the population dwells in the flood plains and thus are at a constant risk of flooding. Keeping in view the increasing impacts of flooding along the Kabul River basin,adequate measures need to be taken to develop a flood resilient community. The present work focuses on the population that is vulnerable to deadly floods each year and suggests mitigation methods to reduce the socio-economic loses of the community suffering as a result of flooding along the Kabul river.

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Closure of Indus River Basin

Closure of Indus River Basin

The massive Indus River Irrigation System plays a life line role for the agriculture and economy of Pakistan. Like other basins in the sub-continent (Indo-Pak), British since mid of the 19th century laid down the basis of a continuous agricultural and water development era which speeded up after Indus Waters Treaty 1960 resulting in an increasing over-commitment of water resources. The signs of basin closure are apparent during dry periods with their adverse environmental, ecological, social and economic impacts in the lower Indus and downstream Kotri on Indus delta. The downstream flow to sea in 1976-77 was about 79 MAF but in 2000 the flows to sea were only 0.79 MAF approaching to almost zero in 2004-05. To deal with the difficulties during adapting mechanism against basin closure there is need for a strategy for water resources management and development in Indus basin which can precisely define and strictly implement the water allocation mechanism to secure equilibrium between sustainable, equitable and efficient uses of the limited water to serve the humanity and preserve the environment.

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Indusclassic® Himalayan Animal Licking Pink Salt lick Horse Cattles Pure with Minerals

Indusclassic® Himalayan Animal Licking Pink Salt lick Horse Cattles Pure with Minerals

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ESTIMATION OF SURPLUS FLOWS ON INDUS RIVER

ESTIMATION OF SURPLUS FLOWS ON INDUS RIVER

In recent times due to rapidly increasing demands, shortage in irrigation supplies and power potential cause unrecoverable loss in industrial, social and agricultural developments. Water has always been controlled and regulated by different means to serve a wide variety of uses. The major source of surface water is generally through river flows. However, these river flows are characterized by a great variation, both annually and seasonally. About 80% of the river flows occur during summer months and a sizeable part of these flows is wasted in areas where there is non-availability of storage capacity. Therefore, development plans in water and hydropower sector recommend programmes for the creation of surface storage by building dams so that surplus river flows could be conserved for utilization during periods of low river flows and hydraulic head is utilized for hydropower generation. This book focuses on evaluating if there is surplus water available on Indus River, where already multiple dams and barrages are present, which may be used to create additional storages for irrigation supplies and hydropower generation.

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Виниловая пластинка Skillet Unleashed

Виниловая пластинка Skillet Unleashed

Новый альбом американской рок-группы Skillet «Unleashed» на виниле.

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Мышь Hama URAGE UNLEASHED

Мышь Hama URAGE UNLEASHED

Мышь Hama uRage Unleashed черный оптическая (4000dpi) беспроводная USB игровая (5but)

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