Oil Sector and Non-enforcement of Zero-gas Flaring Policy in Nigeria

Oil Sector and Non-enforcement of Zero-gas Flaring Policy in Nigeria

The act of gas flaring in Nigeria began with production of crude oil in 1958, and has since engendered serious trans-boundary environmental, energy, economic and health implications. This has led to the adoption of zero-gas flaring policy in 2003 in line with the domestication of related international initiatives and treaties in Nigeria. However, oil joint venture partnerships between Nigeria’s NNPC and international oil corporations (IOCs) from the United States of America, Britain, France and the Netherlands in oil production flared 514,779,616 standard cubic feet (scf) of associated gas out of 619,032,858 scf of total associated gas flared in 2011. Available records indicate that Nigeria’s oil joint venture partners prioritized profits through increase in oil production without relating oil production to the capacity of gas utilization facilities required to meet policy deadline. This study focused on the effects of oil joint venture partnerships on the enforcement of zero-gas flaring policy in Nigeria, 2003-2011.

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Gas Flaring and Reinjection Policy-Making in Nigeria

Gas Flaring and Reinjection Policy-Making in Nigeria

Associated Gas flare-out policies work in other oil-producing countries like Norway, Britain, Venezuela, Canada, Brazil, etc, with the same oil companies operating in Nigeria's oil-rich Niger Delta and fail in Nigeria since 1969, continually. This book, therefore, analyzes critically, a myriad of representative views of the role of indigenous science and technology expertise in gas reinjection policy-making in particular and technology-intensive policy-making in general. In doing so, it addresses the following fundamental questions: Is the non-implementation of gas reinjection policies in Nigeria a function of lack of consultation of indigenous scientific and technological advice? Whose advice is sought and utilized in the formulation and implementation of associated gas reinjection policies in Nigeria? Did judges consult scientific and technological advice before deciding gas flare-induced cases? What is the anatomy and comparative cost of a gas reinjection technology? And what is the cost of gas flaring to Nigeria’s national economy and the oil-rich Niger Delta biosphere? These are some of the salient issues this book interrogates.

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History and Crisis of Petroleum Resources Dependence in Nigeria

History and Crisis of Petroleum Resources Dependence in Nigeria

This work details the history of oil and gas related conflict in Nigeria that started since oil was first discovered in Olobiri, in the Niger Delta region in 1956. It discusses how income from oil and gas resources marginalized the productive sector of the Nigerian economy leading to poverty and conflict. Furthermore, it highlights some of the conflict transformation initiatives of the Government of Nigeria and their inability to deliver on their set goals. Finally, this book made some recommendations for reflection that have implication for policy formulation and implementation.

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Non-Oil Exports and Economic Growth In Nigeria

Non-Oil Exports and Economic Growth In Nigeria

This is strictly an examination of the effect of non-oil export on economic growth of Nigeria. The basic aim is to examine the trend and composition of the non-oil export in Nigeria and investigate the extent of the contribution of non-oil export sector to the Nigerian economy. The study generate serious academic interest in evolving new methods and strategies needed in developing non-oil exports for higher productivity and efficient performance which in the long run will result to economic growth and development. Hence it evaluates the federal government incentives and schemes in promoting non-oil export trade promotion in Nigeria with focus on the immense derivable benefits from engaging in non-oil export and the resulting economic growth in Nigeria at aggregate level which are associated with the current international trends in global trade liberation. Virtually all the nations’ foreign exchange was obtained from the exportation of oil products due to the economic boom in 1970s. Thus, it is pertinent in this study to discuss the causes and consequences of the neglect of the non-oil export in detail as well as trend examined since 1970 in order to note its growth.

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Financial Sector Development and Economic Growth in Nigeria

Financial Sector Development and Economic Growth in Nigeria

The book is made up of 5 chapters covering aspects of financial sector development and economic growth in Nigeria. The book documents past financial sector development modeling efforts of some renowned scholars in a way that will be widely accessible to policy makers, policy advisers and those with research interests in financial sector development.

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Emission Inventory for Gas Flaring in Nigeria

Emission Inventory for Gas Flaring in Nigeria

This work gives a bigger picture of gas flaring in Nigeria with emphasis on emissions emitted into the immediate environment from the flared gas. Gas flaring activities and its associated problems in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria is of great concern to the global and local communities. Emissions from gas flaring sites in the region of the country in view consist of particles outside the conventional greenhouse gases and obnoxious gases which impact the region negatively. Black carbon (BC) is the major component of particulate matter emitted during the burning of fossil fuel, biomass and biofuel. BC is a climate forcer with a global warming potential of 900 and ranked second only to carbon dioxide, which is the main global warming agent. Inventory of emissions released into the atmosphere due to flaring of gas in the country is lacking and this book for the first time presents a well-documented information in this regard. BC emissions from flared gas for the period of 49 years (1965-2013) were estimated and reported accordingly. Also, the effects of BC on the well-being of the inhabitants of this region is discussed in this book.

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Legal Framework for Sustainable Exploitation of Natural Gas in Nigeria

Legal Framework for Sustainable Exploitation of Natural Gas in Nigeria

Over the years, modern international environmental law has gradually evolved into a widely recognized branch of international law, which can be compared to international trade law and the law on human rights as regards the level of progression it has taken. However this book focuses mainly on international environmental law as it affects the Nigerian environment and it reveals the dilemma faced by the Nigerian governments in its various attempts of curbing the gas flaring conundrum. Historically, Nigeria is popularly known as an oil producing nation, it produces about two million barrels of crude oil per day and is ranked among the eleventh producer in the world. In addition to its crude oil reserves, Nigeria is greatly endowed with abundant reserves of natural gas, this was discovered by experts who encountered gas in their search for oil. These resources have turned out to be a gift and a curse, in terms of economic benefit and environmental issues respectively. This book deals with the treatment of climate change in terms of reducing gas flaring and the possibility of successfully utilizing this gas, in striving to achieve sustainable development.

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Trend In Environmental Law And Access To Justice In Nigeria

Trend In Environmental Law And Access To Justice In Nigeria

The book is divided into five chapters under the following headings: - Chapter One: - Review of NESREA Act and Regulations 2007-2011 Chapter Two: - Access to Environmental Justice in Oil Pollution and Gas Flaring Cases as a Human Right Issue in Nigeria Chapter Three: - Status and Trend of Environmental Law in Nigeria: - 1900 - 1999 Chapter Four: - Environmental Law and Land Use in Nigeria Chapter Five: - Addressing the Plight of Environmental Migrants through African Union and ECOWAS Community Laws: A Case for Climate Justice

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Associated Gas Injection Feasibility In The Niger Delta

Associated Gas Injection Feasibility In The Niger Delta

Currently in Nigeria because of under utilization of associated gas (AG) , large volumes of gas is flared. This is because of low demand in the domestic market and non completion of the gas gathering system infrastructure in some areas of operation. The Nigerian government gave an ultimatum to stop routine gas flaring and hence most oil companies are working to comply with the directive. The southern swamp fields located in the central and coastal swamp depobelts of the Niger Delta do not have gas gathering systems and hence associated gas produced is stranded gas. Gas injection has been identified as a possible interim solution to gas flaring in this location. This book present the result of a study on the feasibility of gas injection into depleted oil reservoirs and highlights the basic and easily indentifiable reservoir & fluid factors that determine suitability of a reservoir as an underground storage unit & those that affect the response of oil production to gas injection for quick screening of suitable reservoir candidates for gas injection.

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